Timor-Leste is a leading country in Asia with regards to advocating for greater accountability. While many conflict and atrocity prevention initiatives have been marred by setbacks, notably serious communal violence and population displacement in 2006, important lessons have been learned on grassroots, locally-led reconciliation processes. These conflict and atrocity prevention lessons provide a valuable body of knowledge that can be shared across the region.
“After twenty-four years of systematic violations under a veil of impunity, Reformasi in Indonesia provided an opportunity to determine East Timor’s status through a referendum held by the United Nations in 1999. The referendum resulted in the majority of Timorese people choosing independence in October 1999 with the United Nations taking over as interim administrator of the territory.
UN and Timorese investigators and prosecutors conducted investigations to the 1999 crimes, resulting in more than 300 persons indicted under the Serious Crimes regime, including senior Indonesian military commanders and Timorese militia leaders.
In 2002, working in parallel with the serious crimes process, a truth and reconciliation commission (CAVR) was established to investigate human rights violations that took place between 1975-1999, producing a final report entitled “Chega!” (Enough, Never Again) that documented a pattern of systematic abuse and made comprehensive recommendations. Immediately following the CAVR, the Governments of Timor-Leste and Indonesia established the bi-lateral Commission of Truth and Friendship (CTF, 2005-2008). In 2008, the CTF handed over its findings and recommendations reaffirming CAVR’s findings that crimes against humanity took place in 1999.
More than a decade after the publication of these reports, a civil society working group including AJAR found that only 5% of the recommendations has been or is being implemented. In 2015, a prime ministerial decree established Centro Nacional Chega! (CNC) tasked with bridging the victims with the administration and pushing for the inclusion of the recommendations in government policies.
Our activities in numbers
Highlights of Programmes in the Past Year
Promoting awareness and understanding
Research, including interviews with hundreds of victims of serious human rights violations, examined the challenges faced by the pandemic in Indonesia and Timor-Leste. The research, combined with practical assistance, helped victims develop coping mechanisms to survive.
The ‘school of human rights and social justice’ for young students in Timor-Leste continued. This year more than 100 university students attended activities, building their commitment to fight against the recurrence of past violations.
Strengthening linkages and increasing social capital of human rights defenders
By linking the Aceh Truth and Reconciliation Commission with Timor-Leste’s Centro Nacional Chega! or CNC, AJAR facilitated exchanges of knowledge and strategies on truth-seeking, reconciliation, and designing urgent reparations programs. Young people from Papua, and other parts of Indonesia and Timor-Leste, visited the Aceh TRC to deepen their understanding of the work of truth commissions.
As a member of the Global Initiative for Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation, AJAR and partners worked to identify best practices for supporting women survivors of sexual violence, and children born of rape, in Timor-Leste, Nepal, Bosnia Herzegovina, and South Africa. Comparative studies on searching mechanisms in Latin America and Timor-Leste, and peace processes in Aceh and El Salvador were developed.
Contributing technical assistance, along with policy and legal inputs
AJAR contributed to regional and national links to UN bodies. Inputs, along with victims’ testimonies, were provided to UN events on reparations, focusing on empowering Timor-Leste’s stolen children.